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Mobile telephony technology

Mobile networks transfer voice (conversations), text (SMS) and data (photographs, music, videos, etc.), wirelessly via radio waves a type of electromagnetic waves.

Wireless transmission makes network deployment easier and faster compared to fixed networks, since it requires the installation of antennas without cable connections in every point of the country.

Mobile technology liberates telecommunications development of the geographical difficulties encountered in each area having as a direct result that residents in large cities as well as remote areas who had been waiting years for a phone connection have acquired a phone immediately.

Wireless transmission of voice and data has lead to the design of a mobile network that enables communication while in motion. This is achieved by installing antennas and the use of wireless handsets, in other words mobile phones, which communicate with each other by transmitting and receiving radio waves.

 

Wireless network with cellular grid overlay (photo: EMF Explained)

 

 

How mobile devices work

 A mobile network is comprised of base stations (also known to everyone as antennas), mobile phones and digital switching centres.

Every time we place a call, our mobile phone sends a signal to the closest antenna to us. The antenna processes the signal and then via cables or wireless means -via microwave antennas (microwave dishes) - transmits it to the closest digital switching centre. From there, again via cables or microwave antennas, the signal reaches the antenna which covers the area where the called subscriber is located.

In this way, communication between subscribers located at different geographical points is constant and two-way across the network we’re using. Where some ‘link’ in the network ‘breaks’, communication between the two subscribers terminates.

 

What is a base station and how does it work?

A base station is comprised of a number of antennas, a number of microwave antennas, their support tower and an equipment housing.


 

Each base station comprised of between 1 and 4 antennas, transmits a signal, in other words provides telecom coverage, to a specific geographical area. When the base station is comprised of 3 antennas, it creates three coverage zones in a perimetric pattern. Due to their shape, these zones are known as ‘cells’. The size of each cell depends on the local terrain (buildings, mountains, plains) and the number of mobile telephony subscribers in the area. Each antenna can only ?handle? a specific number of calls at one time (usually between 10 and 50 calls). As the number of calls being handled by a base station increases, the antenna capacity overloads. In this case, the cell needs to be divided into smaller cells; that is to say a second or even a third antenna has to be installed in the area depending on the traffic [of calls] to be handled.


 

Due to the numerous tall buildings and the large number of subscribers in towns and cities, cells are very small and do not exceed more than a few hundred meters in size. For a mobile network to operate with efficiency in a town or in a densely - populated district, the geographical area to be covered must be divided into numerous smaller cells, in other words many small-range antennas must be installed. These antennas operate at particularly low power levels, which usually does not exceed 40 watts . In rural and sparsely populated areas cells are larger, since they have fewer physical obstacles and are required to handle fewer calls.

 
Base stations are installed at locations which allow them to overcome geographical and other limitations and provide coverage to specific areas   Base Station area coverage
How mobile handsets work

When a mobile handset is switched on, it periodically communicates with the antenna which provides coverage in the specific area where they are located. In this way, the mobile phone sends its position to the mobile network so that the user can make or receive a call from any point he is at. If the subscriber is on the move then the signal transmitted by the mobile phone is identified by the respective antennas in the area in which he or she is moving.


Each time we make or receive a call using our mobile phone, electromagnetic waves are transmitted from our handset to the closest antenna, in other words the antenna providing us signal coverage. Following that, the antenna dispatches those waves to a digital switching centre and from there to another antenna and then to another mobile phone or fixed phone. If during the call the caller or called subscriber moves, the mobile network transfers the call from one antenna to another, so that the conversation is not interrupted.


A mobile phone works when a base station is located in the area where it is been used.


 

When do mobile handsets emit less electromagnetic energy

The evolution of technology allows the mobile phone to automatically check its power level, i.e. to increase or reduce the amount of electromagnetic energy emitted during a call. The stronger the signal is in the region where the user is and communicates, the lower is the emission of the mobile phone while using its phone.

 

 

A mobile phone has strong signal when near a base station and thus operating using the least possible power levels from the maximum 2 watts level. If the mobile phone is far from a base station its signal is weak and coverage is inadequate or none then it operates using the maximum power.

 

§  The evolution of technology allows the mobile phone to automatically check its power level, i.e. to increase or reduce the amount of electromagnetic energy emitted during a call. The stronger the signal is in the region where the user is and communicates, the lower is the emission of the mobile phone while using its phone.